Fabe 2014

From Projecting Power

Reading: Marilyn Fabe (2014), An Introduction to the Art of Narrative Film Technique, Glossary.

The Shot: building blocks that compose a film Editing: Continuity editing is the glue around the building blocks that allows for a smooth and supported structure that allows the story to flow _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

In narrative films, shots are the building blocks. Continuity editing is a technique to smoothly connect shots for a seamless narrative flow. Continuity editing includes match cuts (which there are various of) to maintain a comprehensible storyline ;

 -Movement Match : This is when an individual is doing an action and the next scene contains another individual doing the same action as the first. It helps connect the shots and move from scene to scene smoothly 
 -Direction Match : This is when a character exits the scene by going left and then enters the next scene through the right. Having the character leave and come in from the same direction can cause confusion and might be aesthetically unpleasant  
 -Eyeline Match : This is when someone wants to give the idea that the characters are looking or addressing each other while having them in separate shots. An example of this would be a character looking to the right in a shot and having the second character look to the left as they having a conversation so it gives the illusion that they are actively talking to each other: 
 -Axis Match : Same scene but the distance between the audience and the characters minimizes. An example would be seeing two characters talk from a distance to seeing them talk in front of us  
 -Position Match : The placement of a person doesn't move even when the scene or shot changes. An example would be a person standing on the right side of the screen and remaining on the right side in the following scene
 -Graphic Match : Images that look similar such as an umbrella and wheel spinning but the shot is cut to change between the two so it is different 
 -Rhythmic Match : Images and/or actions moving in the same way in the same shot. An example would be an umbrella and wheel spinning together 
 -Jump Cut : Scene change intended to confuse the audience. The change can range from the characters doing something completely different to what they were doing or the background setting changing while we stay with the same character . Jean-Luc Godard's "Breathless" (1959) is an example of jump cuts within a film 


Optical transitional devices: allows for the switch from one scene to another in a dramatic way. The dramatization helps the audience know that there might have been a change in setting whether that be physically or emotionally. This can be done in the following ways;

Iris-in: A dark screen that incorporates light slowly Fade-in: Starts as a dark scene but continues as if the sun was rising up in the film Dissolve: The mashup of two different scene fading gradually so its a smooth transition Wipe In: Changing from one scene to the next with the help of a line moving (horizontally or vertically) across the screen to erase the previous scene _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Conventions of Shot Continuity : editing that helps the audience insert themselves in the film Point-of-View (POV) Shot: Placing the audience in the character so you see everything how they are seeing it from their own eyes Reaction Shot: Seeing the character's reaction after the POV shot Cross-Cut: Changing the scenes back and forth to two different situations that are happening at the same time Contrast Cut: Changing the scene between polar opposite situations. An example would be showing someone who is starved and someone who is well fed

Associational Cut: Cutting from one scene to the next and showing different things that are connected. Mostly used for symbolism such as seeing a scene that includes a dictator and then cutting to a scene that includes a lion. Different things that hold the same power Flashback, Flash Forward: Cuts in the scene that are either that take you to different points in time within the story Shot Duration: The amount of time a shot lasts is connected to the feeling it can give audiences watching. A long shot slows the scene down while a short short makes it feel faster _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Shot Type: The different ways a camera can be set in a scene focusing on the main character/ item in relation to distance ;

Close - Up : The distance between the audience and the main point is very small, we are up close and so it fills up most of the screen Big Close Up: Only seeing the face or part of the face without shoulders or hair, detailed to something such as the nose or lips Medium Close-Up: A shot that shows someone from the midchest up Medium Shot: A shot that shows the audience the character from the waist up. Medium Long Shot: A shot that shows the character from the knees up so Full Shot: A shot that shows the characters whole body but its equal to the screen so there's little to no blank space Long Shot: A shot that includes the characters whole body but also includes the setting so it looks equal Extreme Long Shot: A shot where the character looks small compared to its setting Establishing Shot: A shot in the beginning that shows the setting of the film _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Camera Angle: the angle from which a subject is filmed. This can include ; Straight on/Eye Level: A shot that is filmed with the camera at eye level to the focus High Angle : A shot that is filmed with the camera shooting down at the focus, like looking down Low Angle : A shot that is filmed with the camera shooting up towards the focus, like looking up _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Camera Lense : The lenses allows for the different ways you can shoot an object in relation to scale Normal Lens : A shot from a normal perspective as seen by a person Wide Angle Lens : Shot that is shot from a wide angle meant to distort the frame a bit to give the feeling that the background is extremely big Fish Eye Lens : A shot that has extremely wide to the point that the lines curve at the edge of the frame Zoom Lens: Moving a shot gradually from the wide angle to telephone Deep Focus: All the things being seen clearly even though they are in the background _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Lighting : the light that is shown and how it is shown in relation to the subject to create an impact. This includes the following ; _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Composition: The graphic characteristics of a shot such as whether it is filmed horizontally, vertically, or diagonally _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Symbolism : Giving something more meaning that it shows. Examples include fences as barriers between people that represent racism. This can be anything such as colors or the lighting used in a shot _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Sound: divided into three different categories that include speech, noise and music. These are different in the following ways ;

Diegetic Sound : The sounds that come from within the fictional world where the story is taking place Non-Diegetic Sound : Sound that is coming from outside the fantasy world that is being shown to us, used to create a dramatic effect Internal Diegetic Sound : Sound that is present to the audience as if it was coming from the characters mind, we hear what they are hearing On Screen Sound : The sound is coming from something that is inside the shot Offscreen Sound : The sound is coming from something that is not inside the shot Parallel Sound : Sound that matches up with the action that is going on screen Counterpoint Sound : Sound that is coming from something unrelated to the shot